var year = date.getFullYear(); var date = new Date(); plant community types lacking fire history data. Hollow-Cottonwood-Tree-01. From shop FoundinAlaska. Above, bacteria are shown on pieces of cottonwood trees. Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. But since cottonwoods do not grow in Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong. Appendix A. Wide rivers provide more effective firebreaks than small rivers with greater canopy continuity, at least during mild fire weather [9,31,36]. However, plant productivity can be high in black cottonwood communities, and under dry conditions, abundant fuels resulting from high productivity may result in higher fire severity in riparian areas relative to surrounding uplands . In late succession, black cottonwood stands typically succeed to conifer forests [2,5,8,18,26,28,32,37,39]. A review stated that fires are of lower severity and occur less frequently in riparian areas than in surrounding uplands [9,31]. Cottonwood trees are found primarily in North America, with a large percentage in the Midwestern United States. As of this writing (2014), no information was available about fire size in Alaskan black cottonwood communities. Cottonwoods three feet in diameter at breast height are common. Arno  stated that black cottonwood forests along major rivers of the Pacific Northwest likely burned frequently because they were historically surrounded by communities with frequent fires, such as Pacific ponderosa pine savannas and sagebrush steppes . The tree’s main trunk may reach 48 inches at the base, although, in the Fremont region, the cottonwood tree has a base of between 24 and 35 inches. Thus, fire in southeastern Alaskan black cottonwood communities was also likely very rare. Avalanches, rock slides, and windthrow may be primary disturbances on other sites [8,26]. ]. ID:26476. To avoid both bending over and the flare near the tree stumps, foresters measure the tree diameters at breast height, hence the term breast height diameter. Lightning-caused fires are uncommon in south-central and southeastern Alaska [17,24], and thus also in black cottonwood communities. 5 out of 5 stars (1,374) 1,374 reviews $ 14.99. Oyster mushrooms are grown commercially and are occasionally sold at Carrs in Anchorage for a lot of money ($16/lb when I checked once). Tree_Species-02. Since it was established by an Act of Congress in 1946, scientists at the Geophysical Institute have studied geophysical processes from the center of the Earth to the surface of the sun and beyond, turning data and observations into information useful for state, Arctic and national priorities. It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. months = "February"; Cottonwood trees tend to be bare of leaves during the winter, so identification can be done by looking at the bark or by studying fallen leaves that are surrounding the base of the tree. The Fremont Cottonwood can be found throughout the southwestern United States and into northern Mexico while the Black Poplar is native to Europe and western Asia. Its large, wide-spreading limbs start to leave the trunk near the ground, resulting in a broad crown, often as wide as the tree … However, summer is the peak fire season in south-central and southeastern Alaska , so fire is most likely in Alaskan black cottonwood stands after green up, when sprouting may be less than in spring. Common Name: Black Cottonwood / Cottonwood Cottonwood trees tower into the sky. Please report any problems or feedback concerning this website to email@example.com. The best cottonwood stands in the Susitna Valley contain as much as 34,000 board feet of lumber per acre. As of this writing (2014), fire frequency had not been reported in Alaskan black cottonwood communities. Browse the Guide. Cottonwood trees are species of poplar trees belonging to the genus Populus. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. The Klukwan giant holds the national record for black cottonwood diameter. The error is a small one in one sense because the tree referred to, balsam poplar, is practically indistinguishable from its close relative, the black cottonwood. Fire regimes of Alaskan black cottonwood communities. The cottonwood leaf is very similar to the poplar. months = "March"; Some species of cottonwood trees have been known to reach heights of 100 ft. (30 m) or more. The seedlings and saplings are usually killed regardless of fire severity because of thin bark and shallow roots , and all trees may be killed or top-killed by high-severity fire. Both poplar and cottonwood grow well in river bottoms and sand bars. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Black cottonwood dominates or codominates many riparian floodplain communities in midsuccession and often occurs in mixed-conifer and mixed-hardwood stands with white spruce, Lutz spruce, Sitka spruce, mountain hemlock, western hemlock, balsam poplar, paper birch, and/or Kenai birch. To give an idea of just how structurally week our Alaska cottonwood is here is one of the many ways it has failed to come even remotely close to the strength of spruce, pine, or even western red cedar. “Plants are stuck where they are, so they communicate with microbes that are in the soil, water and air, and recruit them in,” said Sharon Doty, professor of environmental and forest sciences at … They thrive alongside streams, rivers, and lowland areas. These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America. In Alaska, we’ve encountered it on cottonwoods along lakeshores in the Matanuska Valley, but it is not very common. Slime flux is also called wetwood. Fire frequency in Alaskan black cottonwood communities may depend in part on fire frequency in adjacent communities. Information from Canada and the northwestern United States is included in this review to supplement the little information available from Alaska. Fire regimes of Alaskan black cottonwood communities, APPENDIX A. Biophysical Settings for Alaskan black cottonwood communities, Distribution of Alaskan black cottonwood communities based on the LANDFIRE Biophysical Settings (BpS) data layer Only the experts can identify the end product. If you see a cottonwood tree in interior Alaska, you can be sure it's a balsam poplar, but in southern Alaska it could be either. As of this writing (2014), there was little published information on historical fire regimes in these communities. provide up-to-date information to the management community on historical fire regimes and contemporary changes in fuels These factors can contribute to increased fire severity in mature stands . It is caused by a bacterial infection that enters through wounds in the bark. Cottonwoods are also known to drop branches. In Alaska, wind-driven fires beginning in upland communities may spread to adjacent black cottonwood forests, but as of 2014, no studies reported this. var day = date.getDate(); months = "October"; 2014. It is common for people in interior Alaska and corresponding areas of northwestern Canada to use the name cottonwood when referring to one widespread variety of deciduous tree. Cottonwoods are the largest trees that grow in Alaska outside of southeast Alaska. Compared with other disturbances, fire is relatively unimportant in Alaskan black cottonwood stands. Cottonwoods are the largest trees in Arizona. "Softwoods" are from evergreen trees and some like Sothern Yellow Pine make some of the most dense lumber around. ©2020 Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. These trees grow quickly, but they have shallow roots and are usually short-lived. This is the largest broadleaf tree in Alaska. While Alaska won't get rich from cottonwood, some families might be able to make a living. They are easy to spot along a riverbank. In southeastern Alaska, however, many black cottonwood communities are adjacent to western hemlock or spruce-hemlock forests . Fire might have been used by some Native Alaskan populations in southeastern Alaska to, for example, fell large trees or clear burial grounds, but the effects were likely local [17,38]. Black cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera subsp. and fire regimes, supplement information on individual species' adaptations and responses to fire provided by FEIS Species Reviews, and. Parminter  observed no evidence of fire on alluvial balsam poplar-black cottonwood-white spruce floodplain forests in the Cassiar Timber Sale Area in British Columbia and stated that these communities "have not been influenced by fire to a significant degree, if at all". In southeastern Alaska, however, many black cottonwood communities are adjacent to western hemlock or spruce-hemlock forests , where fire was historically very rare [27,37,40]. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. Some cottonwood trees have been known to add six feet or more in height every single year! Rivers and associated riparian vegetation may not provide effective firebreaks during extreme fire weather, especially strong winds [4,31,36]. Appendix B. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Cottonwood trees grow very fast making them desirable for timber production. Black cottonwood is frequently damaged by fire [1,15]. months = "July"; COTTONWOOD BARK CARVINGS David L. Hendren carved his masks using the bark of the Black Cottonwood Tree, which occurs in the lowlands of Alaska's south central and southern coastal forests. In contrast, fire may be a relatively common disturbance in black cottonwood and other riparian cottonwood communities in the Rocky Mountain region of Alberta [12,33]. Patchy vegetation and patchy fuels that result from the transport and concentration of debris on banks by floodwaters result in patchy fires in black cottonwood and other riparian areas [9,31]. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. and narrowleaf cottonwood, sprouted from stumps within 5 months of an April fire that occurred prior to green up . Photo courtesy of Sharon Doty. document.write(year+", "+months[month]+" "+day); Persons wishing to learn more about Alaska's trees will be interested in a low-cost but comprehensive book by Leslie A. Viereck and Elbert L. Little, Jr. entitled Alaska Trees and Shrubs. With the building of the border wall, the future of these trees is in question, as the river flows north. In Alaska, black cottonwood communities occur along the southern coast from the Alaska Peninsula to southeastern Alaska, including various islands [26,32,37,39]. Fire Regime Synthesis It occurs throughout the eastern United States, parts of southern Canada, and northern Mexico. For a list of Alaskan black cottonwood communities, see Cottonwood Tree Pictures category has many photos of Cottonwood Trees, facts on the Cottonwood Tree species, we have lots of pictures of Cottonwood Trees Cottonwood trees are also large shade trees and their sprawling branches have a spread of up to 113 ft. (34 m). Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Rivers in black cottonwood stands can also provide firebreaks [9,31,33,35]. a cottonwood leaf (populus deltoides). Flowers: Catkins, male-female on separate trees. for Alaskan quaking aspen and balsam poplar. It is unclear how human ignitions affected fire regimes in Alaskan black cottonwood communities historically. months = "August"; Balsam poplar is the most widespread broadleaf tree in Alaska; it ranges even farther north and west than another close relative, the quaking aspen. Anecdotal information suggests that repeated fires at short intervals may exclude black cottonwood. Alaska Activity Guide Your expert travel companion in Alaska. Aspen leaves are nearly round, one to two inches across, shiny green above and pale beneath. Cottonwoods are susceptible to a number of different diseases and insect infestations. Most people you ask will tell you that cottonwoods are nothing but messy and destructive trees. Black Cottonwood trees (Populus balsamifera or trichocarpa) can be found growing along rivers and in moist forests. One giant cottonwood near Klukwan, not far from Skagway and Haines, has breast height diameter just over ten feet. months = "December"; (Appendix A). Icon Attribution: Newspaper by Alexandria Eddings from the Noun Project, The northern shrike: songbird like no other. … Black Spruce: Mature height of 15 feet to 30 feet tall with a girth of 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter. var months = new Array(12); The bark is gray and smooth on young branches and the trunk becomes deeply furrowed with age. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. The University of Alaska Fairbanks is an AA/EO employer and educational institution and prohibits illegal discrimination against any individual: Learn more about UA's notice of nondiscrimination. It is published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In floodplain cottonwood forests along the Oldman River in southern Alberta, Canada, 75% of cottonwood trees, most of which were black cottonwood, balsam poplar, Cottonwood trees grow fast and are easy to grow so take a closer look at them by learning all about the different types of cottonwood trees, including their place in history and many uses. Browse 1,480 cottonwood tree stock photos and images available, or search for cotton plant or cotton ball to find more great stock photos and ... katmai national park and preserve, southwest alaska - cottonwood tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. This review covers black cottonwood communities in Alaska. For information on fire regimes in balsam poplar communities, see the As of this writing (2014), there was little published information on historical fire regimes in these communities. Alaska Trees and Descriptions (A few of them)The trees of Alaska span a vast array of ecosystems … Black cottonwood sprouts from lateral roots, the root crown, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire [12,16]. The Alaska fishing industry used to throw away the salmon roe until a visiting Japanese businessman saw what was going on and now someone makes lots of money selling salmon roe. Their trunks are deeply furrowed. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. Rates of sprouting are highest if fire occurs when cottonwoods are dormant . Whereas balsam poplar has somewhat limited use for lumber, black cottonwood has higher strength and is, therefore, superior. Black cottonwood trees were killed and replaced by bunchgrasses in 4 locations after 2 fires that were 19 years apart in Glacier National Park, Montana (Singer 1975 cited in ). enable LANDFIRE to incorporate the latest science on historical fire regimes into data revisions and identify regions and In Alaska, black cottonwood communities occur along the southern coast from the Alaska Peninsula to southeastern Alaska, including various islands [ 26, 32, 37, 39 ]. ID:26475. months = "June"; It grows very tall and has large heart-shaped leaves with small teeth. Where they appear in mixed stands, the poplar sometimes has small, leafed branches lower down on the trunk. months = "September"; The bark comes from trees that have been dead for five to six years. This video, explaining the cottonwood at length is part of an educational series, by the Friends of the San Pedro River. They occur on upper river terraces, large glacial moraines, and gentle hillslopes [5,8,18,26,28,39]. months = "January"; [. The GI is located on the West Ridge of the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus. Its nearest rival, a tree near Salem, Oregon, does hold the national height record. … Innes, Robin J. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. Learn more … Continue reading The Alaska App Your FREE mobile companion to Alaska. These trees are native to North America, Western Asia, and Europe. Frequent flooding, shifting channels, and sediment deposition are the most common disturbances in Alaskan black cottonwood floodplain forests [5,23,26,28]. Spirit of the Trees Alaska Cottonwood Bark Carving Old Man Smoking Pipe Wood Coho Creations FoundinAlaska. Stephen Nickel, with the Alaska Division of Forestry, thinks that the cottonwood has many purposes. Mature black cottonwoods with thick bark may survive low- and moderate-severity fires [16,25]. Available: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/fire_regimes/AK_black_cottonwood/all.html successional stages [11,13,14,33]. They have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall. The range of black cottonwood extends from Alaska, south through Yukon, British Columbia, and Alberta, the western, conterminous United States, and into Baja California Norte [7,19,20]. It is, after all, the largest broad leaf tree we have in Anchorage. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pollen: The real culprits Alaska's early, warm summer has created a perfect storm for airborne pollen from sources other than cottonwood trees. Refe… Request a Planner. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Citation for this synthesis: months = "April"; "The time that we start seeing the fluff is … trichocarpa) is nearly identical to balsam poplar except leaves are whitish underneath and it grows in south-coastal Alaska. Black cottonwood also establishes from seed after fire [6,34,41]. While poplar may grow to 100 feet high and two feet across, cottonwood can reach to 125 feet and be much larger in diameter. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. Close up, it is easy to distinguish between balsam poplar and quaking aspen from the leaves and, to a lesser extent, by the branching structure. But since cottonwoods do not grow in Alaska except on the southern and southeastern coast, the terminology obviously is wrong. Populus balsamifera ssp. LANDFIRE did not model fire regime characteristics in Alaskan black cottonwood communities (fire regime group="NA") because experts did not consider fire an important disturbance in these communities [ For example, in a riparian black cottonwood grove along the Oldman River, 100-year-old black cottonwoods had up to 4 fire scars, suggesting low-severity surface fires at 20- to 30-year intervals . Once in a great while, a poplar goes out on a limb and even hybridizes with an aspen. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Along floodplains and recently deglaciated sites, alders are usually present throughout black cottonwood stand development; willows are common in early succession but become less common in mid- to late succession. Travel Planner Free printed Alaska trip planner and map. Alaska Science Forum article has no image, a placeholder has taken its place. Gom and Rood  suggested that prairie fires would have periodically burned into riparian cottonwood woodlands in Alberta. One site says cottonwood is the state tree of Kansas and Nebraska. months = "November"; Because fire has been historically very rare in these communities [27,37,40], fire spread from these communities into adjacent black cottonwood communities was likely very rare. Hybridizes with balsam poplar where ranges overlap. Learn more about cottonwood … Bark: Yellowish-green and smooth on young trees but deeply furrowed in maturity. Cottonwood trees are one of three species in the section Aigeros in the genus Populus. Cottonwoods do have very aggressive roots that will lift driveways and press on foundations. These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m). The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. In the wild they usually grow in groups and gain heights of 150ft. In areas such as the lower Susitna Valley, near Anchorage, the trees themselves apparently do not know the difference, because they interbreed to produce hybrids. Both balsam poplar and cottonwood have value for fuel wood, pulp and lumber. Black Cottonwood leaves may also have an ovate shape and the leaves of mature trees may show a light rust color on the side facing the ground. It is common for people in interior Alaska and corresponding areas of northwestern Canada to use the name cottonwood when referring to one widespread variety of deciduous tree. The large cottonwood stands in the lower Susitna Valley are considered to have the highest potential for economic development of any stands in the valley, though the volume of both white spruce and birch there is somewhat larger. Attribution: Newspaper by Alexandria Eddings from the Noun Project, the terminology obviously is wrong Asia, lowland. From lateral roots, the poplar family, and/or the bole after top-kill by fire 6,34,41! 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